Sunday, April 10, 2005

Family (Dis)Harmony

On Friday, the Court of Appeals handed down decisions in two separate cases involving estate administration questions. I will not comment on one of these cases, Piper Rudnick v. Hartz, because another attorney in this firm was involved in the case. The question before the Court in that case was the grounds that would support the approval by the Orphans' Court of attorneys' fees incurred by a personal representative.

The other case decided by the Court, Brewer v. Brewer, deals with so-called "family settlement agreements" (also referred to by the Court as "redistribution agreements") whereby members of a family agree to divide an estate differently than is prescribed by the decedent's will. The Court held that:

(1) redistribution agreements are permissible and, so long as they comply with the requirements of basic contract law, neither the personal representative nor the court has any authority to disapprove or veto them, but (2) if they are to be implemented as part of the Orphans' Court proceeding, through a deed from the personal representative pursuant to an approved administration account, they must be attached to that account or otherwise made part of the Orphans' Court record. The account must not simply show the distribution in accordance with the agreement but must identify the agreement, incorporate it by reference, and clearly reflect that the distribution is being made pursuant to the agreement rather than pursuant to the Will.

There are two major practical questions that were not addressed by the Court.

First, what does it mean to "comply with the requirements of basic contract law"? In the course of the opinion, the Court noted that "the existence of a dispute is not ordinarily a prerequisite" to the enforcement of such an agreement. However, absent a dispute which a redistribution agreement purports to settle, what is the consideration that supports the contract? Presumably, in certain cases there could be property swaps that would provide consideration (e.g., the will provides that legatees John and Mary will each receive a one-half interest in both Blackacre and Whiteacre, but John and Mary agree that John will receive a 100% interest in Blackacre and Mary will receive a 100% interest in Whiteacre). However, in other cases (e.g., John is rich and Mary is not, so he agrees to forego some or all of his inheritance) this would not necessarily be the case.

Second, there are potential tax implications that must be considered. Of course, these tax issues were not before the Court in Brewer, but should be taken into account when weighing a redistribution agreement. Specifically, if the agreement is entered into after the nine month disclaimer period, it would seem likely that it could be argued the parties to the agreement have created either a taxable event for income tax purposes (as could be the case in a Blackacre/Whiteacre swap illustrated in the first example) or a taxable gift (as could be the case if one sibling waived part or all of his or her inheritance, as might be the case in the second example).

Oddly, the outcome of the case did not turn on the substantive issue concerning the enforcement of redistribution agreements, but rather on whether the plaintiff could reopen the estate after it had been closed for 20 months. Judge Raker dissented, contending that since this issue had never been raised either below or in the petition for certioari, it was not before the Court.

Wednesday, April 06, 2005

I Remember Momma?

When looking at reported decisions, I'm always reluctant to criticize arguments attorneys make in tough cases. For one thing, courts have been known to misunderstand or misconstrue perfectly reasonable, even if incorrect, arguments in order to fortify their own decisions and the reported opinion may actually make a plausible case appear to look preposterous. For another, the facts that are presented at trial may not be the facts upon which counsel based the decision to undertake representation. Every attorney who has been in practice for even a few years has horror stories about cases that looked great at the beginning, but which crumbled as "new" facts came to light. There are, however, a small class of cases that raise the question: "Why did they bother?" Maloof v. Commissioner decided today by the U.S. Tax Court is such a case.

In Maloof, the taxpayer was a sole shareholder of an S corporation that suffered a long succession of tax losses. Because his ability to use the losses of the corporation were limited to his basis in the corporation's stock, the taxpayer attempted to increase his basis in the stock by including in basis $4 Million in bank loans made to the corporation. Apparently, except for a pledge of his stock in the corporation, the taxpayer was not at risk with respect to the loans.

The opinion reads like the Children's Goldenbook of S Corporation Taxation with the Court walking through fairly basis principles of S corporation taxation. The taxpayer's positions were so adverse to established law that I'm surprised that there was no mention of possible sanctions for taking a frivolous position. (My favorite ludicrous position taken by the taxpayer is that he was a resident of Florida and thus the precedent of the 11th Circuit applied to the case. Why was he a resident of Florida: He lived with his mother, not his wife, who lives in Ohio. Note to Counsel: Your client's name is "Maloof" not "Oedipus.")

The case is instructive on one point: LLCs classified as partnerships or as disregarded entities have benefits over S corporations. Were the company an LLC classified as a partnership or a disregarded entity, the taxpayer would have obtained the benefits he sought. And, he wouldn't have had to run home to momma.

Tuesday, April 05, 2005

Tough to Breakup

In Renbaum v. Custom Holdings, Inc., the Court of Appeals made it clear shareholders must jump a high bar if they seek to force a judicial dissolution of a corporation on the grounds that the directors are deadlocked. In the Court's view, not any deadlock will do. The deadlock must be over an issue or issues that prevent the corporation from "perform[ing] its corporate powers."

In Renbaum, the corporation was a holding company, the sole business of which was to invest in publicly traded securities. The corporate stock was owned by two brothers and their wives. A serious dispute arose over the company's relationship with an attorney who simultaneously acted as the general counsel to the corporation and as the personal attorney for one of the brothers. Part of the dispute centered on the legal bills submitted to the corporation by the attorney. In addition to their inability to agree on who should serve as general counsel, the brothers also argued over whether and in what amount dividends should be paid. However, this dispute was resolved prior to the entry of a final judgment. Thus, by the time that the case was presented to the appellate courts, the only dispute extant between the parties was the general counsel issue. Curiously, however, the parties were in harmony concerning the management of the company's investment portfolio, agreeing to delegate that task to a specific third party investment manager.

Holding that, in order to justify a judicially ordered dissolution, there must be a deadlock concerning a "transcendant corporate function" which, if not broken, made "the object of corporate existence unobtainable." In order to make this determination the Court found that

[u]seful factors [that should be considered] . . . include: (a) whether the corporate function(s) have ceased; (b) the power in dispute is expressed as a discretionary or mandatory power in the corporation’s Articles of Incorporation, by-laws, or other corporate governing documents; (c) the role of that power in achieving the corporation’s primary function(s); and, (d) whether the corporation has exercised, as a matter of practice, that power routinely in its operations.

This case is significant because typical "canned" corporate forms (i.e., articles of incorporation, bylaws, etc.) often default to provisions that allow bare majorities of the shareholders to elect the majority of the members of the board of directors and allow a majority of directors to control the board. Absent fraud or some other basis upon which to demand a judicial dissolution, the minority shareholders can be frozen out. Thus, the ability of minority shareholders to pull the nuclear option of judicial dissolution is a power that the minority shareholders must bargain for at the inception of their relationship with the corporation.

It should be noted that the corporation in Renbaum is a general corporation, not a Maryland statutory close corporation. In the case of a close corporation, §4-602(a) of the Md. Corps. & Ass'ns Art. provides that a judicially ordered dissolution is available on the basis that "there is such internal dissension among the stockholders of the corporation that the business and affairs of the corporation can no longer be conducted to the advantage of the stockholders generally." That standard does not come into play outside of the context of a statutory close corporation. In the case of an LLC, it appears that the stricter standard applicable to general corporations applies, since LLCs can only be judicially dissolved if "it is not reasonably practicable to carry on the business [of the LLC] in conformity with the articles of organization or the operating agreement." See Md. Corps. & Ass'ns Art. §4A-903.

Stuffed and Mounted

The Washington Post reported today on an abusive tax avoidance scheme involving the donation of mounted big game animal trophies to various museums. Apparently, one particular appraiser has specialized in both valuing the trophies and arranging the donations. The valuations are often 5 to 10 times what the trophies will bring at established auctions. In one case, a museum sold mounts that had a total appraised value of $4.2 Million for only $67,000.

In addition to the tax abuse or, perhaps, tax fraud angle, the practice is in the sights of conservationists who content that "the trophies hunted are often endangered animals illegally brought into the United States." The question then is, Who Gnu?


Senator Chuck Grasslely's office yesterday issued a press release where he said in part:

The phoniness of this kind of donation calls out for congressional action. It looks like it's time for these self-enriching hunters to become the hunted. Big-game trophies and other non-cash contributions that give more tax benefits to donors than help to the needy are in the Finance Committee's cross hairs. There's mounting evidence that some taxpayers are using these gifts to play big-money games for personal enrichment. This abuse is no different than what we saw with car donations. With car donations, someone cheated on his taxes to the tune of hundreds of dollars and the charity got $50 out of it. With taxidermy donations, the museum gets a pittance for a dusty boar's head that sits in a railway car until it sells, while the donor gets big tax breaks. This is completely unacceptable. We need to take the tax cheating out of taxidermy. We need to close loopholes in the tax laws intended to foster charitable donations, and Tuesday's hearing sets the stage for reform legislation.

"Take the tax cheating out of taxidermy"? Who writes this stuff?